As announced in our recent security advisory, Preempt researchers discovered how to bypass the Enhanced Protection for Authentication (EPA) mechanism to successfully launch NTLM relay attacks on any server that supports WIA (Windows Integrated Authentication) over TLS.
As announced in our recent security advisory, Preempt researchers discovered how to bypass the MIC (Message Integrity Code) protection on NTLM authentication and modify any field in the NTLM message flow, including the signing requirement. This bypass allows attackers to relay authentication attempts which have negotiated signing to another server while entirely removing the signing requirement. All servers which do not enforce signing are vulnerable.
As announced in our recent security advisory, Preempt researchers discovered a critical vulnerability which allows attackers to retrieve the session key for any NTLM authentication and establish a signed session against any server. Any domain environment which does not entirely block NTLM traffic is vulnerable.
On June 2019 Patch Tuesday, Microsoft released patches for CVE-2019-1040 and CVE-2019-1019, two vulnerabilities discovered by Preempt researchers. The critical vulnerabilities consist of three logical flaws in NTLM (Microsoft’s proprietary authentication protocol). Preempt researchers were able to bypass all major NTLM protection mechanisms.
Security professionals often feel they don’t have enough time to keep up with modern threats. In fact, Crowdstrike researchers have found that top threat actors can go in and out of networks in a matter of minutes. Despite other similar security research reports listing all the ways threat actors can breach a network, they rarely offer a viable solution to combat these risks and often just resign us all to a “we can only do our best” mentality.
I disagree. While I feel that “doing our best” is sufficient for an elementary school project, it’s not the right mentality for an enterprise security team. We as security professionals should strive to be excellent. In order to get there, let’s review some common attack patterns and discuss the best ways to disrupt an attacker’s plan.
Enterprises are badly burned by security tools that don’t work. When they finally see a solution that does what it purports to do, the shock is palpable.
According to haveIbeenpwned.com, close to 8 billion accounts have been compromised. The site provides a tool to see if any of your passwords have been compromised and are available on the dark-net. Once passwords are compromised, they are easily exposed to bad actors who can use them for brute force attacks and credential stuffing.
People often think that state-sponsored attacks from groups like Lazarus (North Korea), Fancy Bear (Russia) or menuPass (China) only target public federal organizations in Western nations like the U.S. This is simply not the case. In fact, attacks on large financial and retail institutions have increasingly been state-sponsored attacks hoping to create chaos more than just theft. These attacks largely come from U.S.-sanctioned states such as Iran, Russia and North Korea, as these hacking groups have come to realize that attacking private organizations can achieve the same goals as attacking public institutions.
Network segmentation has long been one of the most valuable tools for protecting an enterprise’s assets. Flat, unsegmented networks architectures can allow nosey insiders to easily access sensitive information, while also enabling attackers to move laterally, escalate privileges and spread malware. Segmentation breaks the network into more logical segments and introduces new layers of control and the ability to apply tailored policies for each area.
In the past year, we have seen numerous publicly traded corporations (Marriott and T-Mobile), airlines (Cathay Pacific and Delta), and tech companies (Facebook and Google+) all breached because of some type of insider threat or compromised credentials. So, it’s no surprise that insider threats and preventing credential compromise are growing concerns for organizations.