On July 2019 Patch Tuesday, Microsoft released a patch for CVE-2019-1126, an important vulnerability discovered by Preempt Research Labs. The vulnerability discovered leads to security issues that create a wide scale denial-of-service against exposed organizations, and potentially, identity compromise.
While Microsoft only released one patch, we believe there are two vulnerabilities that allow attackers to remotely launch brute-force attacks on AD FS servers from the outside of the network. Attackers can bypass the Extranet Lockout Protection security feature and also bypass the Microsoft AD lockout policy(!) in certain scenarios. The implications vary between account compromise (due to weak passwords) or a massive denial-of-service to all domain accounts. All AD FS versions are vulnerable.